Infacon XII

Infacon XII

Helsinki, Finland, 6-9 June 2010

The conference website can be found at
Cover and Introduction
Table of Contents

        Session Chairperson: P. Korhonen

Toward sustainability in ferroalloys production
        L. Holappa

Carbon reductants for the production of chrome and manganese alloys
      A Jones

Changes in the ferrochrome and ferronickel markets
      H Pariser, Dr Gerhard, and C Pariser

Trends and challenges in stainless steel industry
      K Parvento

        Session Chairperson:

Changes in the Northern American ferroalloys industry structure and trends in the industry during the past 20 years
      JR Didaleusky, JD Jorgenson, LA Corathers, MD Fenton, PH Kuck, JF Papp, DE Polyak, and KB Shedd

Current situation and main trends of development of Russian ferroalloy industry
      LI Leontyev and, VI Zhuchkov

Current state and prospects of ferroalloy industry of Kazakhstan
      M Tolymbekov, S Baisanov, and S Kim

        Session Chairperson:

Use of read-across in the health risk assessment of ferrochromium alloys under reach
      H Stockman-Juvala, A Zitting, IO Wallinder, G Darrie, and T Santonen

Bioaccessibiliy of ferrochromium and ferrosilicon-chromium particles compared to pure metals and stainless steel- aspects of human exposure
      K Midander, A de Frutos, Y Hedberg, G Darrie, and IO Wallinder

Theoretical and practical aspects of Cr(VI) in the South African ferrochrome industry
      J P Beukes1, NF Dawson, and PG van Zyl

        Session Chairperson:

How the ferroalloys industry can meet greenhouse gas regulations
      T Lindstad, B Monsen, and KS Osen

Meeting the challenge of sustainability through technology development and integration in ferroalloy submerged arc furnace plant design
      M Dos Santos

Recycling of waste materials from production of FeMn and SiMn
      S Gaal, M Tangstad, and B Ravary

A model for temperature measurement errors in off-gas channels
      B Solvang and E Naess

        Session Chairperson:

Improving environment in the tapping area of a ferromanganese furnace
      B Ravary and S Gradahl

Silicon process- New hood design for tapping gas collection
      M Kadkhodabeigi, H Tveit ,and KH Berget

Continuous improvement for fugitive emissions control
      L Gunnewiek, B Ravary, P Cowx, and J Woloshyn

Design of tapping fume extraction systems for ferroalloys furnaces
      L Els, C Coetzee, and O Vorster

        Session Chairperson:

Process of manganese furnace dust: Drying and zinc oxide reduction
      T Hamano, R Shen, G Zhang, P Brown, and O Ostrovski

Major ferroalloy producer improves furnace fume control system by installing baghouse with membrane filter bags
      L Els, F Fereday, and O Vorster

Low temperature carbothermal reduction of siliceous manganese fines
      R Kononov, O Ostrovski, and S Ganguly

        Session Chairperson:

Vanadium recovery as FeV from petroleum fly ash
      Y Xiao, CR Mambote, H Jalkanen, Y Yang, and R Boom

Recovery of vanadium from V-bearing BOF-slag using an EAF
      M Lindvall, S Rutqvist, and G Ye

High purity Mn metal from Mn oxide dust produced during FeMn refining process
      KJ Lee, DS Min, CS Park, YK Park, and HC Jo S H.Hong

        Session Chairperson:

Thermochemical computations in carbothermic and metallothermic ferroalloy processes
      B Derin, O Yucel, and K Hack

Building a FeNi smelter simulator
      H Oterdoom and R Degel

A thermodynamic study on the oxidation of silicon, carbon and chromium in the ferrochrome converter
      EP Heikkinen, T Ikäheimonen, O Mattila, and T Fabritius

        Session Chairperson:

Thermodynamic analysis of chrome reduction with aluminium silicon
      A Akuov, M Tolymbekov, Kasenov, and A Yesenzhulov

Petrographic analysis of low-carbon ferrochrome slag
      A Konarbaeva, A Akuov, and M Tolymbekov

        Session Chairperson: M. Kauppi

Pre-reduction and smelting characteristics of Kazakhstan ore samples
      SD McCullough, SAC Hockaday, C Johnson, and NA Barcza

Effects of oxidation on the microstructure and reduction of chromite pellets
      B Zhao and PC Hayes

Research and development initiatives on the briquetting technology and its commercialisation for Richards Bay plant
      R Sen, D Mukherjee, J Van Vuuren, W De Villiers, and S Banerjee

Research of briquetting process of fine chromium ores
      AV Pavlov, YV Zavalishina, VA Grygorian, KL Kossyrev, and OV Chadaeva

Coal based direct reduction of preoxidised chromite ore at high temperature
      G Kapure, V Tathavadkar, CB Rao, SM Rao, and KS Raju

        Session Chairperson:

A laboratory investigation of the influence of electric current on the burden reaction in a submerged arc furnace
      A Rousu, OMattila and P Tanskanen

Utilization of substandard and off grade raw materials for chromium and manganese ferroalloys production
      VI Zhuchkov, OV Zayakin and AV Zhdanov

Preliminary characterization of the samples taken from a submerged arc ferrochrome furnace during operation
      J Ollila, P Niemelä, A Rousu, and O Mattila

        Session Chairperson:

Slag-carbon reactivity
      J Safarian and M Tangstad

Modelling and optimisation of anthracite treatment in an electrocalcinator
      MM Gasik, MI Gasik, OYu Urazlina, and SV Kutuzov

Influence of coke particle size on the electrical resistivity of coke beds
      PA Eidem , M Tangstad, JA Bakken, and R Ishak

Reductant characterization and selection for ferrochrome production
      G Makhoba , and RH Eric

        Session Chairperson: P. Niemala

Some aspects of the production of ferrochrome alloys in pilot DC arc furnaces at Mintek
      SAC Hockaday and K Bisaka

Process for effective utilization of low grade chromite overburden
      G Kapure, CB Rao, V Tathavadkar, and KS Raju

Reduction of chromite fines in solid state using a mixture of gases containing natural gas, hydrogen and nitrogen
      CN Harman

Zimbabwe alloys ferro chromium production: From cradle to grave sustainability
      J Chirasha and NR Shoko

Simulation of the production of ferrochromium in submerged-arc furnace
      S Rangnathan, KM Godiwalla, NV Satyanarayana , P Kumar, V Rao, AK Roy, and B Srikant

        Session Chairperson:

Oxidation kinetics of ferrochrome under controlled oxygen pressures
      H Wang, NN Viswanathan and S Seetharaman

Refining of charge chrome; a study of some products and applications
      CJ Rick

The aluminothermic production of extra low carbon ferrochromium from low grade chromite ore
      MM Eissa, KA El-Fawakhry, ML Mishreky, and HR EI-Faramawy

        Session Chairperson:

Properties of manganese ores and their change in the process of calcination
      B Sorensen, S Gaal, M Tangstad, E Ringdalen, R Kononov, and O Ostrovski

Decrepitation of Brazilian manganese lump ores
      G L Faria, NCS Vianna, N Jannotti, CB Vieira, and FG da Silva Araújo

Behaviour of agglomerates in ferromanganese production
      M Tangstad, D Leroy and E Ringdalen

Upgrading of Mn/Fe ratio of low-grade manganese ore for ferromanganese production
      V Kivinen, H Krogerus and J Daavittila

The effect of potassium and zinc circulation on agglomeration of charge in SAF
      D Slizovskiy and M Tangstad

Ore properties in melting and reduction reactions in silicomanganese production
      E Ringdalen, S Gaal and O Otrovski

        Session Chairperson: M. Tangstad

Comparing manganese ferroalloy smelting in pilot-scale AC and DC submerged-arc furnaces
      H Lagendijk, B Xakalashe, T Ligege, P Ntikang, and K Bisaka

Operational improvements of a submerged arc furnace in Kashima works (KF-1) relined in 2006
      T Ishitobi, K Ichihara, T Homma, Chuo-Denki-Kogyo Co and Ltd Kashima Works

Complex processing of iron-manganese ore of Central Kazakhstan
      Ye Samuratov, A Baisanov and M Tolymbekov

Furnace management in Eramet manganese during the 2009 crisis
      G Folmo, C Perdon, T Hitier, R Ishak, F Wasser, and D Haaland

Influence of boron oxide on viscosity and conductivity of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-MnO slags
      O Sariev, M Tolymbekov, A Akberdin, and A Kim

Multi-variation analysis and optimisation of electrical conductivity of MnO-SiO2-CaO slags
      MM Gasik and MI Gasik

        Session Chairperson:

Manganese ore and alloys piloting tools at Eramet research
      A Soller, A Amalric, G Pochart, and G Nussbaum

Reaction of manganese containing slag with carbon substrate
      H Sun, M Lone, S Ganguly, and O Ostrovski

Electric parameters for efficient smelting performance of HCFeMn alloy
      YE Lee and M Tangstad

Development of a dynamic model for a manganese oxygen refining (MOR) converter
      J Nell and I Nolet

Thermodynamical aspects of decarburization of manganese melts
      VYa Dashevskiy and AG Kanevskiy

Thermodynamics of carbon removal by molten slags from manganese alloy melts
      JH Park, GH Park, CI Park, JG Park, DJ Min, HC Jo, and YE Lee

Kinetics of nitriding of ferromanganese alloy
      SN Ghali, KM El-Fawakhry, MM Eissa, and Mishreky

        Session Chairperson:

Thermochemical and kinetic databases for the solar cell silicon
      K Tang, EJ Øvrelid, G Tranell, and M Tangstad

Slag phase equilibria and viscosities in ferronickel smelting slags
      E Jak and PC Hayes

Phenomena in thermal treatment of lateritic nickel ores up to 1300 degrees centigrade
      A Bunjaku, M Kekkonen and L Holappa

Phase diagram of Ti-Fe-Al system
      Ye Zhumagaliev, S Baisanov, A Chekimbaev, and N Nurgali

Thermal analysis of agglomerated nickel ore
      B Kelamanov, M Tolymbekov, K Kaskin, and A Baisanov

Small scale laboratory experiments simulating an industrial silicon furnace
      M Tangstad , MKsiazek, V Andersen, and E Ringdalen

        Session Chairperson:

Relevant aspects related to production of iron nickel alloys (pig iron containing nickel) in mini blast furnaces
      P von Kruger, CA Silva, and CB Vieira, FGS Araujo, and V Seshadri

High power, shielded-arc FeNi furnace operation - challenges and solutions
      C Walker, T Koehler, N Voermann, and B Wasmund

SNNC: A new ferronickel smelter in Korea
      L Rodd, N Voermann, F Stober, and B Wasmund

        Session Chairperson:

Reaction zones in FeSi75 furnace- results from an industrial excavation
      G Tranell, M Andersson, E Ringdalen, O Ostrovski, and JJ Steinmo

Current distribution in submerged arc furnaces for silicon metal/ ferrosilicon production
      G Saevarsdottir and JA Bakken

Energy balance of a 45MW (ferro-) silicon submerged arc furnace
      NE Kamfjord, EH Myrhaug, H Tveit, and B Wittgens

Waste heat utilization from a submerged arc furnace producing ferrosilicon
      H Hjartarson, H Palsson, and G Saevarsdottir

        Session Chairperson:

New TiO2 slag plant for CYMCO using 30MW DC furnace
      A de Jong and D Mitchell

SAF water leak detection by the measurement of gaseous water vapour
      P Dennis and Dr S Ganguly

Application of high intensity refractory cooling systems in pyrometallurgical vessel design
      F Marx, M Shapiro, and B Henning

        Session Chairperson: P. Santala

Advanced modelling and baking of Soderberg electrodes
      RP Meyjes, J Venter, and U van Rooyen

Mathematical and computational modelling of the dynamic behaviour of direct current plasma arcs
      QG Reynolds, RT Jones, and BD Reddy

Low cost ferroalloy extraction in DC-arc furnace at Middleburg Ferrochrome
      D Sager, D Grant, R Stadler, and T Schreiter

Development in the design and construction of DC arc smelting furnaces
      FP Greyling, W Greyling, and FI de Waal

AC- and DC- smelter technology for ferrous metal production
      Dr G Kleinschmidt, Dr R Degel, M Köneke, and H Oterdoom

Implementation of the first commercial scale DC smelter for ferronickel production from low grade laterite- technology building blocks and lessons learned
      CP Naude and MD Shapiro

Evaluating AC and DC furnace water-cooling systems using CFD analysis
      B Henning, M Shapiro, F Marx, D Pienaar, and H Nel

Campaign extension for ferroalloy furnaces with improved tap hole repair system
      C Coetzee, PL Duncanson, and P Sylven

New developments in furnace power stabilization with SPLC
      M Sedighy, T Ma, and N Voermann

        Session Chairperson:

Refractory wear and lining profile determination in operating electric furnaces using stress wave non-destructive testing (NDT)
      A Sadri, P Gebski, and E Shameli

New refractory lining direction at Jindal stainless FeCr #1 and #2 furnaces
      C Coetzee, PH Lamont, PL Duncanson, and P Sylven

        Session Chairperson:

SHS-technology of ferroalloys nitriding
      MK Ziatdinov and IM Shatokhin

Low-nickel austenitic stainless steels: Metallurgical constraints
      PC Pistorius and M du Toit

Ferroalloy design, ferroalloy selection and utilisation optimization with particular focus on stainless steel materials
      C-J Rick and M Engholm

Ferroalloys for clean steels production and quality specifications
      KV Grigorovich, SS Shibaev, and IV Kostenko

Impurities in commercial ferroalloys and its influence on the steel cleanliness
      MM Pande, M Guo, X Guo, D Geysen, S Devisscher, B Blanpain, and P Wollants

Contribution maximization model -case of a ferroalloys manufacturing firm
      Dr RK Mohapatra

List of Authors
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